A blog from University of Borås

Wednesday, July 1, 2015

A new book: Resource Recovery to Approach Zero Municipal Waste

Solid wastes is a global problem with dumping and landfilling as the main practice in the world. However, we are used to say "waste is a resource, but our knowledge is not enough to utilize it". We talk about "zero wastes" and how to recovery everything and do not leave anything for the landfill and even do "mining" of the old landfill. I frequently get question on how to do it?

Now, we have published a book to put all the details on the technical, social, environmental and legal aspects on approaching zero wastes. It is suitable for municipalities, companies, researchers and students who are working in this field. The book is entitled Resource Recovery to Approach Zero Municipal Waste, and contain:

1. An Overview of Solid Waste Management towards Zero Landfill: A Swedish Model
            Kamran Rousta, Tobias Richards, Mohammad Taherzadeh,

1.1 Introduction
1.2 Integrated Solid Waste Management
1.3 Waste Hierarchy as a Strategy  6
1.4 Waste Refinery vs Biorefinery & Oil Refinery 7
1.4.1 Waste or Resource
1.4.2 Oil Refinery vs Waste Refinery
1.5 Swedish Waste Management in Practice
1.5.1 Waste Management Progress in Borås
1.5.2 How the Borås Model Works Material flow in collection system Material Recovery/Transfer Facilities (MR/TF) Biological Treatment Preparation of the Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) Thermal Treatment Waste Boilers Gas Cleaning Ash Handling District Heating and District Cooling Interaction of Different Disciplines in Integrated Solid Waste Management in Borås        
1.6 Concluding Note
1.7 References

2. Sustainable Management of Solid Waste
Kim Bolton, Barbara De Mena, Gerhard Schories,

2.1 Introduction
2.2 Methods for Sustainable Management of Solid Waste          
2.2.1 Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) The Aim of LCA The LCA Method
2.2.2 ISSOWAMA Guideline on ISWM in Asian Developing Countries Motivation The Guideline Evaluation
2.3 Examples of ISWM
2.3.2 Waste Recovery in Borås, Sweden, and a partnership in Yogyakarta, Indonesia
2.4 Concluding Note
2.5 References

3. Laws and regulations governing waste management - institutional arrangements regarding waste management.
Ulla Eriksson-Zetterquist and Maria José Zapata Campos

3.1.      Introduction
3.2.      conceptualizing waste
3.3.      From landfill to recycling and reduction
3.4.      Laws and regulations gocerning waste management
3.5.      Recycling WEEE - A Global issue
3.6.      Laws and regulations in global patterns
3.7.      Laws in practice – Occupational risks and hazardous environments
3.8.      Concluding discussion
3.9.      References

4. Source Separation of Household Waste: Technology and Social Aspects
Kamran Rousta, Lisa Dahlén,

4.1 Household waste separation
4.2 The role of householders in waste separation
4.2.1 Factors that influence participation in source separatio
4.3 Collection system for separated household waste
4.3.1 Bring/drop-off system
4.3.2 Property close collection Two-bin system Commingled collection of dry recyclables/yellow bin Separate bin for each recyclable material Multi-compartment bins Optical sorting Food waste separation
4.4 Source separation: selection and evaluation
4.5 Some recommendations
4.6 References

5. Composting of Wastes
Antoni Sánchez, Xavier Gabarrell, Adriana Artola, Raquel Barrena, Joan Colón, Xavier Font and Dimitrios Komilis

5.1 Introduction
5.2 Composting to approach zero municipal waste
5.2.1 Composting within the waste treatment hierarchy
5.2.2 Benefits of composting
5.3 Scientific principles of composting 
5.3.1 Physicochemical parameters
5.3.2 Waste biodegradability
5.4. Composting operation
5.4.1. Home composting
5.4.2. Simple industrial systems Turned windrow Static pile
5.4.3. In-vessel processes Composting tunnels Composting channels/trenches Rotating drum biostabilizer
5.5 Composting and/or anaerobic digestion
5.6 LCA and comparison with other technologies for waste treatment
5.7 Compost quality
5.7.1 Stability and maturity
5.7.2 Physicochemical parameters
5.8 Application of compost
5.8.1 The role of compost as organic amendment
5.8.2 Compost as suppressor of plant diseases
5.9 Economy of Composting
5.10 Concluding Note
5.11 Nomenclature
5.12 References

6. Biogas from wastes: processes and applications
Maryam M. Kabir, Gergely Forgács, Mohammad J. Taherzadeh, Ilona Sárvári Horváth,

6.1. Introduction
6.2. Anaerobic Digestion Process
6.2.1. Hydrolysis
6.2.2. Acidogenesis
6.2.3. Acetogenesis
6.2.4. Methanogenesis
6.3. Operational and environmental factors affecting anaerobic digestion performance
6.3.1. Temperature
6.3.2. Nutrients
6.3.3. C/N –Ratio
6.3.4. pH and alkalinity
6.3.5. Hydraulic retention time and organic loading rate
6.4. Process improvement
6.4.1. Substrate
6.4.2. Pretreatment
6.4.3. Co-digestion
6.5. Types of anaerobic digestion reactors for organic solid wastes
6.5.1. Batch and continuous systems
6.5.2. Wet and dry anaerobic digestion
6.5.3. Number of stages Single-Stage process Two/or multi-stage process
6.6. Global overview of the AD digesters
6.6.1.   Small scale AD digesters Designs of household digesters
6.6.2. Industrial scale digesters
6.7. Utilization of biogas
6.7.1. Heating/Cooking
6.7.2. Producing heat and electricity
6.7.3. Upgrading
6.7.4. Fuel cells
6.8. Economics of anaerobic digestion
6.8.1. Capital cost
6.8.2. Operating cost
6.8.3. Cost of the biomass feedstock
6.8.4. Revenue
6.8.5. Financial support system
6.9. Concluding remarks
6.10. References

7. Combustion of wastes in combined heat and power plants
Anita Pettersson, Fredrik Niklasson, Tobias Richards,

7.1 Introduction
7.1.1 General considerations about waste-to-energy plants
7.1.2 Waste as a fuel
7.2 Boiler design
7.2.1 Grate furnace boiler
7.2.2 Fluidized bed boiler
7.3 Flue gas cleaning system
7.3.1 Particle precipitation
7.3.2 CO control
7.3.3 Scrubbers for HCl and SO2 removal
7.3.4 NOx removal
7.4 Ashes
7.5 Ash treatment/disposal
7.5.1 Bed ash
7.5.2 Fly ash
7.5.3 Post-treatment of bed ash
7.5.4 Post-treatment of fly ash
7.5.5 Selective waste incineration
7.5.6 Selective ash collection
7.6 Cost and revenues
7.6.1 Cost of WtE plants
7.6.2 Revenues from WtE plants
7.7 Modern WtE installations
7.8 References

8. Recent developments in the gasification and pyrolysis of waste
Tobias Richards,

8.1.      Background/Introduction
8.2.      What is pyrolysis and gasification?
8.2.1 Pyrolysis
8.2.2 Gasification
8.3.      Why thermal treatment?
8.4.      Technology options
8.4.1 Pyrolysis technology Slow pyrolysis
8.4.2 Gasification technology Fixed bed gasification Fluidized bed Slagging gasification Staged gasification
8.4.3 Plasma gasification
8.5.      Examples
8.6.      A description of the various technologies
8.6.1 Valmet
8.6.2 Nippon steel
8.6.3 Thermoselect
8.6.4 Kabelco
8.6.5 Enerkem
8.6.6 Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuilding
8.6.7 Westinghouse plasma gasification
8.7.      Discussion
8.8.      References

9. Metal Recycling
Christer Forsgren,

9.1 Background
9.2 Collection
9.2.1 Households
9.2.2 Industry
9.2.3 Handling of scrap
9.3 Logistics
9.3.1 Transportation
9.3.2 Container Selection
9.4 Stages of Recycling
9.4.1 Separation
9.4.2 Identification
9.4.3 Sorting
9.4.4 Refining
9.4.5 Hydrometallurgical processes
9.5 Recycling of Specific Metals and Secondary Use
9.5.1 Base Metals
9.5.2 Precious Group Metals (PGM)
9.5.3 Rare Earth Elements (REEs) 
9.5.4 Special metals
9.6 Recycling examples
9.6.1 Recycling of a Food Can
9.6.2 Recycling of a Car (End of life Vehicle, ELV)
9.6.3 Recycling of electrical cables
9.7 Conclusions and the Future
9.8 References

10. Material and Energy Recovery from Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) - Status, challenges and opportunities.
Efthymios Kantarelis, Panagiotis Evangelopoulos, Weihong Yang,

10.1 Introduction
10.2 Status and legislation
10.3 Composition
10.4 Energy, materials and feedstock recycling options for WEEE
10.4.1 Dismantling and sorting
10.4.2 Shredding and Grinding
10.4.3 Mechanical separation and sorting
10.4.4 Pyrometallugical treatment
10.4.5 Hydrometallurgical treatment
10.4.5 Thermochemical Treatment Gasification Pyrolysis Pyrolysis Technologies Dehalogenation of pyrolysis-oil -Catalytic Upgrading
10.5 Conclusions
10.6 References

11. Recycling of thermoset composites
Mikael Skrifvars, Dan Åkesson,

11.1 Introduction
11.2 The need to recycle
11.3 Composite recycling methods
11.3.1 Mechanical recycling of composites
11.3.2 Energy recovery of composites
11.3.3 Energy recovery with material recovery
11.3.1 Energy and material recovery in cement production
11.3.5 Pyrolysis of composite waste
11.3.6 Chemical degradation of composite waste
11.4 Future perspectives for composite recycling
11.5 References
11.6 Tables and Figures

12. Recycling of papers and fibers
Samuel Schabel, Hans-Joachim Putz, Winfrid Rauch,

12.1 Advantages of paper recycling
12.2 Recyclability of paper products
12.3 Collection systems for recovered paper
12.4 Dry sorting technologies
12.5 Classification of paper for recycling in Europe (EN 643)
12.6 Basic stock preparation processes for recovered paper production
12.6.1 Re-pulping
12.6.2 Coarse cleaning
12.6.3 Screening
12.6.4 Flotation
12.6.5 Bleaching
12.7 Utilization of recycled fiber pulp in papermaking
12.8 Future perspectives for paper recycling
12.9 References

13. Product Design for Material Recovery
Taina Flink, Mats Torring,

13.1 Introduction
13.2 Indirect Impact on Material Recovery
13.2.1 Design for Environment (DfE)
13.2.2 Design for Re-Use
13.2.3 Design for Modularity
13.3 Designing for Material Recovery
13.3.1 Material Choices Recycled Material Metal Plastic Wood, Cardboard and Paper Glass and Ceramics Composites Textiles and Foams Rare Earth Metals Hazardous and Polluting Components
13.3.2 Joinings and Connections General Guidelines Bayonets Connecting without Joining Elements Welding and Soldering Glue Screws Rivets Snap-fits Clips Casting
13.3.3 Take Back Systems   
13.4 Concluding note
13.5 References

14. Landfill mining: on the potential and multifaceted challenges for implementation
Joakim Krook, Nils Johansson, Per Frändegård,

14.1 Introduction
14.2 Why should we learn how to mine landfills?
14.2.1 Resource implications – the importance of considering material stocks
14.2.2 Potential for pollution prevention
14.2.3 Other potential socio-economic impacts
14.3 Why don’t we mine landfills
14.3.1 Fundamentals of cost-efficient industrial production
14.3.2 Institutional conditions for resource extraction
14.3.3 The landfill is stuck in a dump regime
14.3.4 Some examples of legislative, market and business implications
14.4 Concluding discussion
14.5 References