A blog from University of Borås

Wednesday, July 1, 2015

A new book: Resource Recovery to Approach Zero Municipal Waste

Solid wastes is a global problem with dumping and landfilling as the main practice in the world. However, we are used to say "waste is a resource, but our knowledge is not enough to utilize it". We talk about "zero wastes" and how to recovery everything and do not leave anything for the landfill and even do "mining" of the old landfill. I frequently get question on how to do it?

Now, we have published a book to put all the details on the technical, social, environmental and legal aspects on approaching zero wastes. It is suitable for municipalities, companies, researchers and students who are working in this field. The book is entitled Resource Recovery to Approach Zero Municipal Waste, and contain:




1. An Overview of Solid Waste Management towards Zero Landfill: A Swedish Model
            Kamran Rousta, Tobias Richards, Mohammad Taherzadeh,

1.1 Introduction
1.2 Integrated Solid Waste Management
1.3 Waste Hierarchy as a Strategy  6
1.4 Waste Refinery vs Biorefinery & Oil Refinery 7
1.4.1 Waste or Resource
1.4.2 Oil Refinery vs Waste Refinery
1.5 Swedish Waste Management in Practice
1.5.1 Waste Management Progress in Borås
1.5.2 How the Borås Model Works
1.5.2.1 Material flow in collection system
1.5.2.2 Material Recovery/Transfer Facilities (MR/TF)
1.5.2.2.1 Biological Treatment
1.5.2.2.2 Preparation of the Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF)
1.5.2.3 Thermal Treatment
1.5.2.3.1 Waste Boilers
1.5.2.3.2 Gas Cleaning
1.5.2.3.3 Ash Handling
1.5.2.3.4 District Heating and District Cooling
1.5.2.4 Interaction of Different Disciplines in Integrated Solid Waste Management in Borås        
1.6 Concluding Note
1.7 References

2. Sustainable Management of Solid Waste
Kim Bolton, Barbara De Mena, Gerhard Schories,

2.1 Introduction
2.2 Methods for Sustainable Management of Solid Waste          
2.2.1 Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)
2.2.1.1 The Aim of LCA
2.2.1.2 The LCA Method
2.2.2 ISSOWAMA Guideline on ISWM in Asian Developing Countries
2.2.2.1 Motivation
2.2.2.2 The Guideline
2.2.2.3 Evaluation
2.3 Examples of ISWM
2.3.1 ISSOWAMA
2.3.2 Waste Recovery in Borås, Sweden, and a partnership in Yogyakarta, Indonesia
2.4 Concluding Note
2.5 References

3. Laws and regulations governing waste management - institutional arrangements regarding waste management.
Ulla Eriksson-Zetterquist and Maria José Zapata Campos

3.1.      Introduction
3.2.      conceptualizing waste
3.3.      From landfill to recycling and reduction
3.4.      Laws and regulations gocerning waste management
3.5.      Recycling WEEE - A Global issue
3.6.      Laws and regulations in global patterns
3.7.      Laws in practice – Occupational risks and hazardous environments
3.8.      Concluding discussion
3.9.      References

4. Source Separation of Household Waste: Technology and Social Aspects
Kamran Rousta, Lisa Dahlén,

4.1 Household waste separation
4.2 The role of householders in waste separation
4.2.1 Factors that influence participation in source separatio
4.3 Collection system for separated household waste
4.3.1 Bring/drop-off system
4.3.2 Property close collection
4.3.2.1 Two-bin system
4.3.2.2 Commingled collection of dry recyclables/yellow bin
4.3.2.3 Separate bin for each recyclable material
4.3.2.4 Multi-compartment bins
4.3.2.5 Optical sorting
4.3.2.6 Food waste separation
4.4 Source separation: selection and evaluation
4.5 Some recommendations
4.6 References

5. Composting of Wastes
Antoni Sánchez, Xavier Gabarrell, Adriana Artola, Raquel Barrena, Joan Colón, Xavier Font and Dimitrios Komilis

5.1 Introduction
5.2 Composting to approach zero municipal waste
5.2.1 Composting within the waste treatment hierarchy
5.2.2 Benefits of composting
5.3 Scientific principles of composting 
5.3.1 Physicochemical parameters
5.3.2 Waste biodegradability
5.4. Composting operation
5.4.1. Home composting
5.4.2. Simple industrial systems
5.4.2.1. Turned windrow
5.4.2.2. Static pile
5.4.3. In-vessel processes
5.4.3.1. Composting tunnels
5.4.3.2. Composting channels/trenches
5.4.3.3. Rotating drum biostabilizer
5.5 Composting and/or anaerobic digestion
5.6 LCA and comparison with other technologies for waste treatment
5.7 Compost quality
5.7.1 Stability and maturity
5.7.2 Physicochemical parameters
5.8 Application of compost
5.8.1 The role of compost as organic amendment
5.8.2 Compost as suppressor of plant diseases
5.9 Economy of Composting
5.10 Concluding Note
5.11 Nomenclature
5.12 References

6. Biogas from wastes: processes and applications
Maryam M. Kabir, Gergely Forgács, Mohammad J. Taherzadeh, Ilona Sárvári Horváth,

6.1. Introduction
6.2. Anaerobic Digestion Process
6.2.1. Hydrolysis
6.2.2. Acidogenesis
6.2.3. Acetogenesis
6.2.4. Methanogenesis
6.3. Operational and environmental factors affecting anaerobic digestion performance
6.3.1. Temperature
6.3.2. Nutrients
6.3.3. C/N –Ratio
6.3.4. pH and alkalinity
6.3.5. Hydraulic retention time and organic loading rate
6.4. Process improvement
6.4.1. Substrate
6.4.2. Pretreatment
6.4.3. Co-digestion
6.5. Types of anaerobic digestion reactors for organic solid wastes
6.5.1. Batch and continuous systems
6.5.2. Wet and dry anaerobic digestion
6.5.3. Number of stages
6.5.3.1. Single-Stage process
6.5.3.2. Two/or multi-stage process
6.6. Global overview of the AD digesters
6.6.1.   Small scale AD digesters
6.6.1.1. Designs of household digesters
6.6.2. Industrial scale digesters
6.7. Utilization of biogas
6.7.1. Heating/Cooking
6.7.2. Producing heat and electricity
6.7.3. Upgrading
6.7.4. Fuel cells
6.8. Economics of anaerobic digestion
6.8.1. Capital cost
6.8.2. Operating cost
6.8.3. Cost of the biomass feedstock
6.8.4. Revenue
6.8.5. Financial support system
6.9. Concluding remarks
6.10. References

7. Combustion of wastes in combined heat and power plants
Anita Pettersson, Fredrik Niklasson, Tobias Richards,

7.1 Introduction
7.1.1 General considerations about waste-to-energy plants
7.1.2 Waste as a fuel
7.2 Boiler design
7.2.1 Grate furnace boiler
7.2.2 Fluidized bed boiler
7.3 Flue gas cleaning system
7.3.1 Particle precipitation
7.3.2 CO control
7.3.3 Scrubbers for HCl and SO2 removal
7.3.4 NOx removal
7.4 Ashes
7.5 Ash treatment/disposal
7.5.1 Bed ash
7.5.2 Fly ash
7.5.3 Post-treatment of bed ash
7.5.4 Post-treatment of fly ash
7.5.5 Selective waste incineration
7.5.6 Selective ash collection
7.6 Cost and revenues
7.6.1 Cost of WtE plants
7.6.2 Revenues from WtE plants
7.7 Modern WtE installations
7.8 References

8. Recent developments in the gasification and pyrolysis of waste
Tobias Richards,

8.1.      Background/Introduction
8.2.      What is pyrolysis and gasification?
8.2.1 Pyrolysis
8.2.2 Gasification
8.3.      Why thermal treatment?
8.4.      Technology options
8.4.1 Pyrolysis technology
8.4.1.1 Slow pyrolysis
8.4.2 Gasification technology
8.4.2.1 Fixed bed gasification
8.4.2.2 Fluidized bed   
8.4.2.3 Slagging gasification
8.4.2.4 Staged gasification
8.4.3 Plasma gasification
8.5.      Examples
8.6.      A description of the various technologies
8.6.1 Valmet
8.6.2 Nippon steel
8.6.3 Thermoselect
8.6.4 Kabelco
8.6.5 Enerkem
8.6.6 Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuilding
8.6.7 Westinghouse plasma gasification
8.7.      Discussion
8.8.      References

9. Metal Recycling
Christer Forsgren,

9.1 Background
9.2 Collection
9.2.1 Households
9.2.2 Industry
9.2.3 Handling of scrap
9.3 Logistics
9.3.1 Transportation
9.3.2 Container Selection
9.4 Stages of Recycling
9.4.1 Separation
9.4.2 Identification
9.4.3 Sorting
9.4.4 Refining
9.4.5 Hydrometallurgical processes
9.5 Recycling of Specific Metals and Secondary Use
9.5.1 Base Metals
9.5.2 Precious Group Metals (PGM)
9.5.3 Rare Earth Elements (REEs) 
9.5.4 Special metals
9.6 Recycling examples
9.6.1 Recycling of a Food Can
9.6.2 Recycling of a Car (End of life Vehicle, ELV)
9.6.3 Recycling of electrical cables
9.7 Conclusions and the Future
9.8 References

10. Material and Energy Recovery from Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) - Status, challenges and opportunities.
Efthymios Kantarelis, Panagiotis Evangelopoulos, Weihong Yang,

10.1 Introduction
10.2 Status and legislation
10.3 Composition
10.4 Energy, materials and feedstock recycling options for WEEE
10.4.1 Dismantling and sorting
10.4.2 Shredding and Grinding
10.4.3 Mechanical separation and sorting
10.4.4 Pyrometallugical treatment
10.4.5 Hydrometallurgical treatment
10.4.5 Thermochemical Treatment
10.4.5.1Combustion
10.4.5.2 Gasification
10.4.5.3 Pyrolysis
10.4.5.3.1 Pyrolysis Technologies
10.4.5.3.2 Dehalogenation of pyrolysis-oil -Catalytic Upgrading
10.5 Conclusions
10.6 References

11. Recycling of thermoset composites
Mikael Skrifvars, Dan Åkesson,

11.1 Introduction
11.2 The need to recycle
11.3 Composite recycling methods
11.3.1 Mechanical recycling of composites
11.3.2 Energy recovery of composites
11.3.3 Energy recovery with material recovery
11.3.1 Energy and material recovery in cement production
11.3.5 Pyrolysis of composite waste
11.3.6 Chemical degradation of composite waste
11.4 Future perspectives for composite recycling
11.5 References
11.6 Tables and Figures

12. Recycling of papers and fibers
Samuel Schabel, Hans-Joachim Putz, Winfrid Rauch,

12.1 Advantages of paper recycling
12.2 Recyclability of paper products
12.3 Collection systems for recovered paper
12.4 Dry sorting technologies
12.5 Classification of paper for recycling in Europe (EN 643)
12.6 Basic stock preparation processes for recovered paper production
12.6.1 Re-pulping
12.6.2 Coarse cleaning
12.6.3 Screening
12.6.4 Flotation
12.6.5 Bleaching
12.7 Utilization of recycled fiber pulp in papermaking
12.8 Future perspectives for paper recycling
12.9 References

13. Product Design for Material Recovery
Taina Flink, Mats Torring,

13.1 Introduction
13.2 Indirect Impact on Material Recovery
13.2.1 Design for Environment (DfE)
13.2.2 Design for Re-Use
13.2.3 Design for Modularity
13.3 Designing for Material Recovery
13.3.1 Material Choices
13.3.1.1 Recycled Material
13.3.1.2 Metal
13.3.1.3 Plastic
13.3.1.4 Wood, Cardboard and Paper
13.3.1.5 Glass and Ceramics
13.3.1.6 Composites
13.3.1.7 Textiles and Foams
13.3.1.8 Rare Earth Metals
13.3.1.9 Hazardous and Polluting Components
13.3.2 Joinings and Connections
13.3.2.1 General Guidelines
13.3.2.2 Bayonets
13.3.2.3 Connecting without Joining Elements
13.3.2.4 Welding and Soldering
13.3.2.5 Glue
13.3.2.6 Screws
13.3.2.7 Rivets
13.3.2.8 Snap-fits
13.3.2.9 Clips
13.3.2.10 Casting
13.3.3 Take Back Systems   
13.4 Concluding note
13.5 References

14. Landfill mining: on the potential and multifaceted challenges for implementation
Joakim Krook, Nils Johansson, Per Frändegård,

14.1 Introduction
14.2 Why should we learn how to mine landfills?
14.2.1 Resource implications – the importance of considering material stocks
14.2.2 Potential for pollution prevention
14.2.3 Other potential socio-economic impacts
14.3 Why don’t we mine landfills
14.3.1 Fundamentals of cost-efficient industrial production
14.3.2 Institutional conditions for resource extraction
14.3.3 The landfill is stuck in a dump regime
14.3.4 Some examples of legislative, market and business implications
14.4 Concluding discussion
14.5 References


Index


Wednesday, May 27, 2015

Gasoline from biomass via butene

A new method for gasoline production from butene (or butylene) has been developed. Cellulose and hemicellulose in wood and lignocellulsoses can be converted to butene via levulinic acid. Then, two molecules of butene can then be converted in a dimerization process to iso-octanol that is gasoline with high octane number.

There are many groups working on this topic. Recently, Audi together with Global Bioenergies have recently announced development of this method is larger scale and will start with a pilot of 100 tons/year next year. It is an interesting development and I wish them good luck with their process!



Monday, May 11, 2015

Book: Industrial Biorefinery & White Biotechnology

I have contributed to a book entitled "Industrial Biorefinery & White Biotechnology" (ISBN: 978-0-444-63453-5) that will be published soon by Elsevier. The book covers a variety of industrial applications of biotechnology, something that we should see more in the future in order to respond human global demand on energy and materials while caring about our environment and sustainability. Here is the list of content of the book:


Part A: Industrial Biorefineries
1. Biorefinery concepts in comparison to industrial crude oil and gas refineries
2. Algal biorefineries
3A. Paper mills and wood-based biorefineries
3B. The pine biorefinery platform chemicals value chain
4A. Sugar- & starch-based biorefineries
4B. Ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil: economic perspectives
5. Vegetable oil biorefineries
6. Biogas biorefineries
7. Civilisation biorefineries: Efficient utilization of urban waste based bioresources
8. Biomass-pyrolysis for hybrid biorefineries
9. Single-cell biorefinery
Part B: White Biotechnology
10. Biocatalysis
11. White biotechnology for organic acids
12. White biotechnology for amino acids
13. White biotechnology for Industrial enzymes
14. White biotechnology for biosurfactants
15. White biotechnology for biopolymers - Exopolysaccharides
16. White biotechnology for biopolymers - Polyhydroxyalkanoates
17. White biotechnology for biopolymers -Polyhydroxybutyrate
18. White biotechnology for specialty chemicals - Cosmetics
19. White biotechnology for specialty chemicals - Food additives







Sunday, April 19, 2015

Ethanol from stillage goes commercial in Sweden using Indonesian fungi

Ethanol with a production of close to 90 billion liters is the largest product of biotechnology in term of the volumes. Ethanol concentration is generally around 10-11% that goes to distillations and ethanol is separated from the slurry named "stillage".  It means we have close to 900 million m3 of stillage per year in the world. The stillage contains about 10% solid materials.

We have worked several years to produce ethanol and animal feed from this stillage. We used an edible fungus that is originated from Indonesia in a food named "oncom". In has been developed in our lab and examined in large scale at the ethanol plant Agroetanol. They are now planning to use it commercially. It is exciting for both the company and also our research group that developed the process. This news was published in the Swedish newspaper NyTeknik a few days ago.

(The fungus Neurospora that gives the orange color in the food)

Tuesday, April 14, 2015

Pop rice, rice film and rice husk!

In Vietnam, rice with a production of about 40 million tons, is one of the most important income in rural areas and also export for the country. In addition to rice as final production, rice in Vietnam is also converted to other products. Rice films and pop rice are two products (you might have heard about pop corn, but not pop rice) When producing these products, rice husk is used as fuel, and then its ash is used as fertilizer to the rice fields. It means no waste but total recycling! Here are some photos about these processes that I took in Mekong delta:

- Producing rice films (that is then used to roll with vegetables as a tasty food):





- For pop rice, sand is first heated up by burning the husk, then rice (with its husk) is mixed with it and you get immediately the rice pop mixed with husk and sand. Then, it is screened to separate the sand and husk: